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The Hindu Editorial Vocab Dose 11 by Ajay Sir

Return of the great deluge
Once again, a vigorous[जोरदार- strong, healthy, and full of energy] monsoon so vital to India’s economic fortunes has left some States in a shambles[खंडहर- a state of total disorder]. From Assam to Karnataka, heavy rainfall in a short span of time has created paralysing floods that have taken a heavy toll of life, wiped out crops and destroyed hard-earned assets. When the waters recede, a familiar cycle of assessment of damage by Central teams, preparation of loss estimates and expensive restoration[मरम्मत- reinstatement, reinstitution, reestablishment, reimposition, return] work such as repairs to river embankments, will follow. In Assam, where 31 deaths have been recorded already, there are projects to strengthen the embankments[तटबंधों] of the heavily silted Brahmaputra; the Flood Control Department, as well as the disaster relief force, have well-funded budgets. Yet, the hundreds of crores of rupees periodically spent on flood preparation, relief and mitigation research in the State have not yielded[राज़ी होना] a protocol that reduces the impact of heavy rain. The swollen river invariably dissolves the weak earthen embankments overnight. Now that another furious season is providing fresh insight into the causes, effects and impact of rain and floods in northeastern India and elsewhere, it is time the Centre took a coordinated view in tackling the crisis. To begin with, it has to review the efficacy of the flood forecasts issued by nearly 180 specialized stations now in operation, and the pattern of responses of the 19 States and Union Territories that receive these alerts.
Urban India is no less traumatized[आघात] by floods, but city governments have not learnt too many lessons from devastation[तबाही- destruction, ruin, desolation, havoc, wreckage, ruins, ravages] and losses. The scenes of gridlock and frustration in Gurgaon, Bengaluru, and Delhi last week traveled around the world, just months after the disaster in Chennai. Can there be a surgical solution to sclerotic urban planning? Bengaluru is the epitome of[प्रत़ीक- personification, embodiment, incarnation, paragon, essence, quintessence, archetype, paradigm, exemplary, model, soul, example, height] governmental indifference to wetlands, most of which have been severely encroached upon or polluted. Being able to live with floods in today’s dense cities requires that these lakes be designed and restored on a war footing. New artificial wetlands may have to be created to compensate for those that have already been built over. The spectacle[तमाशा- display, show, pageant, parade, performance, exhibition, extravaganza, spectacular] of flooding and destruction should convince the Environment Ministry that it is retrograde[प़ीछे हटना] to sanction large real estate projects without an environmental impact assessment. Some real estate companies have been slapped with penalties by the National Green Tribunal for encroaching[अततक्रमण- trespassing, invasive] upon lakes, but urban planning agencies are equally responsible and must also be called to account for tacitly sanctioning the violations. Provision of relief to those affected by the latest floods has to go beyond patronage[संरक्षण- sponsorship, backing, funding, financing, promotion, assistance, support] politics, and meet the actual needs of the people, particularly those who have suffered extreme losses.

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